IT Projects Development & ManagementSoftware Engineering ConsultancyGeographical Information Systems Expertise

IT Projects Development & Management

Software Engineering Consultancy

Geographical Information Systems Expertise

About Us

Quadratic is a Belgian company active in IT projects development and management, as well as in software engineering consultancy.

We set up methodologies that cover the analysis, design, architecture, development, testing, documentation, productization and maintenance of your IT projects.

We are specialized in projects that integrate geomatics and geospatial processing, which is transverse to the needs encountered in many business areas.

Our approach is clear: solving real problems with solutions that work, based on appropriate technologies and respecting your budgets, constraints and deadlines.

Here are some of our references and partners:


The NDVI Index in Agriculture

The characteristics of the Earth’s surface are translated into the spectral signature caught by multispectral instrument on satellites. In the case of the Copernicus’s Sentinel-2 satellites, the equipped Multispectral instrument can catch information in each of the 13 bands it is sensible to. Beside bands 2, 3 and 4, which are respectively for the blue, green, and red band, the MSI comes with the aerosol band, and near infrared (NIR) to short wave infrared (SWIR) bands.

Crops and vegetation in general are in green tones when seen in true color. Nature is this way because photosynthetic activities associated with vegetation need the energy of the blue and red wavelengths. Green is thus not necessary and is most reflected.

Seen things in true color and identifying vegetation based on green patterns is one thing. But what if we could exploit the information stored in the other bands? The following graph shows the absorption rate of chlorophyll and we clearly see that the green wavelengths are, as expected, the least absorbed. Notice however the very poor absorption rate in the NIR area (> 700nm).

Chlorophyll absorption rate (Source: Wikipedia)

Chlorophyll absorption rate (Source: Wikipedia)

By following the logic, can we thus pretend the more photosynthetically active a plant is, the more this gap between the red and NIR is widened? Observations confirm and the NDVI (Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index) index is a very good indicator for plants’ health, vitality, the greenness and the amount of vegetation (not the biomass). NDVI is the expression of the contrast between the reflectance of the red and the NIR reflectance. The formula is the following

NDVI = (NIR – VIS) / (NIR + VIS)

And the values it takes ranges from -1 to 1. Healthy vegetation has values from 0.3 to 0.8. Free standing water is around 0. So what about “wet vegetation”? Water content tend to darken the objects. Soils are around 0.1 and 0.2.

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Monitoring the crop evolution using different true color satellite imageries

Agriculture is facing many challenges known for centuries. The climate is changing, the weather is capricious, water can become scarce, soils undergo increasing pressures, prices of the fertilizers can climb, culture prices can drop dramatically. Observing their field regularly and taking the right decisions at the right moments are essential for farmers to keep a maximum productivity.

Modern technologies make it now possible to monitor our crop fields more accurately. The Copernicus Sentinel satellite programme produces a satellite view of every point in the Europe every 5 days with a 10 meter resolution. It is hence possible to observe crops from space and to spot anomalies across larger fields more easily.

In this practical example here, we followed the last few months of the crops near Liege (Belgium) between the 01/05/2016 and the 25/09/2016.

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Potentials of the Copernicus Sentinel Programme for the Agro-Industry

Quadratic is currently studying problems encountered in the agro-industrial sector and develops for its partners real-time monitoring tools and decision support tools, intended to help them manage their logistics. Quadratic, conscious of the whole agroindustry, thinks more upstream of this project, at the very source of the food value chain: the crop fields and their efficiency.

Crops (Source: Progressive Media Group)

Crops (Source: Progressive Media Group)

Productivity of crop fields varies from year to year, due to the central and capricious role of meteorological factors. While it is difficult to juggle with the aspect of weather, one could however ask “How can I make my farm more productive”? Asking this question comes with two sub questions: “How can I increase the performances of my crop fields?”, and, “How can I be more cost-efficient?”

One of the key feature in helping farmers to make crops more productive is, first, to know their fields by monitoring them. Knowing the exact moment to plant grains, to use fertilizers, and, most importantly, on which part of the field to do it, are the objectives of precision farming, also called smart farming. Regular and precise crop field observations require a lot of time most farmers cannot spend.

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